Theme
Entrepreneurial Ecosystems

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Currently there are over 500 townships in the South Africa, whose combined land mass surpasses that of Johannesburg and Durban combined and which are home to an estimated 40% of South Africa’s urban population. While more is understood about the small and growing businesses (SGBs) in metropolitan areas, less is known about the entrepreneurial ecosystems in the townships and how to support the primarily micro, necessity-based businesses that operate there. This report focuses on identifying the key actors implementing programmes to support entrepreneurs and small businesses operating in townships in the Eastern Cape, Gauteng, and Western Cape Provinces, the challenges the entrepreneurial support providers face, and the opportunities to strengthen this ecosystem.

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Les écosystèmes entrepreneuriaux comprennent l’ensemble des éléments culturels, politiques et économiques qui permettent aux entrepreneurs de lancer, soutenir et développer une nouvelle affaire. Si le concept d’écosystème entrepreneurial est bien établi, la base de données probantes sur la manière exacte dont les écosystèmes se développent et sur la question à savoir si les interventions peuvent accélérer cette croissance est toujours en cours d’élaboration. Ce rapport synthétise les données existantes sur le processus complexe de création d’écosystèmes entrepreneuriaux et propose des enseignements clés tirés de la documentation.

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Ecossistemas empreendedores compreendem o conjunto de elementos culturais, políticos e econômicos que permitem aos empreendedores iniciar, sustentar e expandir um novo negócio. Embora o conceito de ecossistema empreendedor esteja bem estabelecido, a base de evidências sobre como exatamente os ecossistemas crescem e se as intervenções podem acelerar esse crescimento ainda está emergindo. Este relatório resume as evidências existentes sobre o complexo processo de construção de ecossistemas empreendedores e oferece lições importantes da literatura.

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Los ecosistemas de emprendimiento comprenden un conjunto de elementos culturales, políticos y económicos que permiten a las y los emprendedores iniciar, sostener y escalar un nuevo negocio. Mientras que el concepto de ecosistema de emprendimiento está bien establecido, la base de la evidencia sobre cómo crecen exactamente los ecosistemas y sobre si las intervenciones pueden acelerar este crecimiento es aún emergente. Este informe sintetiza la evidencia existente sobre el complejo proceso de construir ecosistemas de emprendimiento y ofrece lecciones clave a partir de la literatura.

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Entrepreneurial ecosystems comprise the set of cultural, political, and economic elements that allow entrepreneurs to start, sustain, and scale a new business. While the concept of an entrepreneurial ecosystem is well-established, the evidence base on how exactly ecosystems grow and whether interventions can accelerate this growth is still emerging. This report synthesizes the existing evidence on the complex process of building entrepreneurial ecosystems and offers key lessons from the literature.

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Southeast Asia is one of the fastest-growing regions in the world, with a total GDP of over USD 2.7 trillion. However, its progress is threatened by the increasingly adverse impacts of climate change. Entrepreneurship has a leading role in developing solutions to both mitigate and adapt to climate change. This report evaluates the current support ecosystem for climate and environmental entrepreneurs in six developing Southeast Asian countries: Cambodia, Indonesia, Myanmar, the Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam. Through ANDE's data collection and analysis, this report offers insights on the set of organizations supporting entrepreneurs that aim to address climate change mitigation, adaptation, and non-climate related environmental protection challenges.

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"Bangkok is the vibrant capital city of Thailand, known for being a popular tourist destination. The city’s population, which accounts for 15% of the country’s population, and its significant urban sprawl make it the country’s largest and a critical part of the national economy. ANDE identified and collected data on 267 ecosystem players actively supporting entrepreneurs and small businesses in Bangkok."

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"The concept of entrepreneurial ecosystems has been used as a framework to explain entrepreneurial activities within regions and industrial sectors. Despite the usefulness of this approach, the concept is undertheorized, especially with regard to the evolution of entrepreneurial ecosystems. The current literature is lacking a theoretical foundation that addresses the development and change of entrepreneurial ecosystems over time and does not consider the inherent dynamics of entrepreneurial ecosystems that lead to their birth,
growth, maturity, decline, and re-emergence. Taking an industry lifecycle perspective, this paper addresses this research gap by elaborating a dynamic entrepreneurial ecosystem lifecycle model. We propose that an ecosystem transitions from an entrepreneurial ecosystem, with a focus on new firm creation, towards a business ecosystem, with a core focus on the internal commercialization of knowledge, i.e., intrapreneurial activities, and vice versa. Our dynamic model thus captures the oscillation that occurs among entrepreneurs and intrapreneurs through the different phases of an ecosystem’s lifecycle. Our dynamic lifecycle model may thus serve as a starting point for future empirical studies focusing on ecosystems and provide the basis for a further understanding of the interrelatedness between and coexistence of new and incumbent firms."

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"The purpose of this article is to review the emerging research on entrepreneurial ecosystem and to guide future research into this promising area. The study presents a critical review on the entrepreneurial ecosystem, starting from its very definition and antecedents. Combining prior research with building on the main concepts that constitute an entrepreneurial ecosystem, we have developed an original set of guidelines that can help scholars and practitioners seeking an answer to the following pressing question: “How can we gain a comprehensive understanding of an entrepreneurial ecosystem?”. We will then discuss the opportunities for expanding our current knowledge on entrepreneurial ecosystems and describe the current debates and directions for future research. Lastly, we will provide guidelines that policymakers may take into consideration when designing and issuing support measures to promote entrepreneurship in their local ecosystems."

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"Salaried wage jobs are the distinguishing feature separating the middle class from the poor in
developing countries (Banerjee and Duflo 2008). Where do salaried wage jobs come from, and
how can small and medium-sized firms create more of them? We review the evidence on
constraints to growth of small and medium enterprises. We first examine evidence on
constraints to capital and skilled labor, firms’ primary inputs to production. We then consider
factors that affect the efficiency with which firms are able to transform inputs into outputs,
focusing on managerial talent. Finally, we look at the importance of linking firms to markets
and the role of demand in generating firm growth. We conclude with a proposal for a research
agenda built around important but unanswered questions. "

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