Year
2018

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Based on a review of existing literature, this paper discusses to what extent and how SMEs can
deliver green and inclusive growth. The OECD defines green growth as aligning economic growth and environmental objectives. Specifically, it involves transitioning to a resource-efficient, low carbon economy and preserving environmental resources while seizing the economic opportunities that this transition generates (OECD, 2015[9]). Similarly, the World Bank defines green growth as “economic growth that is environmental sustainable.” Put it more concretely, it means “enabling developing countries to achieve robust growth without locking themselves into unsustainable patterns” (World Bank, 2012[10]). Meanwhile, inclusive growth involves raising “societies’ welfare or living standards broadly defined.” It is a multidimensional measure of growth and includes both income-related measures of well-being and non-income elements such as health and education. Inclusive growth also emphasizes the question of distribution; that is, how are aggregate changes in measures of growth distributed across households and individuals (Boarini, Murtin and Schreyer, 2015[11])? Simply, green and inclusive growth involves a transition to an eco-friendly, low-carbon economy and simultaneously, broad improvements in societal welfare. Thus, the paper is concerned with discussing to what extent greening SMEs delivers widespread societal welfare gains."

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"The purpose of this paper is to investigate the feasibility of the incubator and accelerator approaches towards climate technology entrepreneurship in developing countries. Because an accelerator is a specific type of new venture incubator, this paper will also more broadly consider the suitability of incubators and note the recent emergence of hybrid forms of incubator-accelerators."

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"From the backstreets of Addis Ababa to the offices of Silicon Valley, people are transforming ideas into products that are used by society. Entrepreneurs, as such people are known, are vital to the growth and prosperity of communities. But what role can entrepreneurs play in tackling climate change? How can we help entrepreneurs to rise to this challenge? This policy brief seeks to answer these questions. It highlights the role of entrepreneurs in developing technologies, business models and services that society can use to achieve low-emission and climate-resilient sustainable development. It also suggests ways of encouraging, guiding and supporting entrepreneurs in their efforts to innovate climate technologies. This TEC Brief is part of a long-running series of policy briefs on innovation produced by the Technology Executive Committee. It focuses on the central actor in the innovation process: the entrepreneur."

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"The purpose of this article is to review the emerging research on entrepreneurial ecosystem and to guide future research into this promising area. The study presents a critical review on the entrepreneurial ecosystem, starting from its very definition and antecedents. Combining prior research with building on the main concepts that constitute an entrepreneurial ecosystem, we have developed an original set of guidelines that can help scholars and practitioners seeking an answer to the following pressing question: “How can we gain a comprehensive understanding of an entrepreneurial ecosystem?”. We will then discuss the opportunities for expanding our current knowledge on entrepreneurial ecosystems and describe the current debates and directions for future research. Lastly, we will provide guidelines that policymakers may take into consideration when designing and issuing support measures to promote entrepreneurship in their local ecosystems."

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"Salaried wage jobs are the distinguishing feature separating the middle class from the poor in
developing countries (Banerjee and Duflo 2008). Where do salaried wage jobs come from, and
how can small and medium-sized firms create more of them? We review the evidence on
constraints to growth of small and medium enterprises. We first examine evidence on
constraints to capital and skilled labor, firms’ primary inputs to production. We then consider
factors that affect the efficiency with which firms are able to transform inputs into outputs,
focusing on managerial talent. Finally, we look at the importance of linking firms to markets
and the role of demand in generating firm growth. We conclude with a proposal for a research
agenda built around important but unanswered questions. "

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"By investing in gender inclusion, businesses can generate opportunities for women while also furthering their business objectives. In recognition of the opportunities outlined above, the Shell Foundation and Value for Women embark on a partnership in 2016 designed to pilot a holistic framework for gender inclusion in enterprise operations, using a "bottom-up", business-first approach, aimed at testing the impact of gender inclusion on business performance. The approach first hones in on business challenges, and then designs practical, measurable solutions with a gender lens."

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"This study draws on social learning theory and research concerning role model effects to understand how exposure to female entrepreneurial role models influences the development of entrepreneurial self-efficacy, attitudes and intentions among female students. In our study, we find that exposure to female entrepreneurs particularly boosts the development of entrepreneurial self-efficacy and attitudes towards entrepreneurship of female students. We explore five mechanisms to explain role model effects as an emergent outcome of a reciprocal relationship between student and entrepreneur. We find that if entrepreneurs signal high levels of supportiveness and interest in the student's project outcomes, the importance of working with an entrepreneur of the same-gender decreases.

This study provides evidence that role model effects do not only occur by chance, but can be purposefully triggered in an educational setting. Hence, exploiting female role model effects may serve as an effective mechanism to foster female entrepreneurship."

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"Este relatório tem três funções principais. Ele foi encomendado pelo Conselho Britânico, em parceria com o Serviço Brasileiro de Apoio às Micro e Pequenas Empresas (SEBRAE), como parte do Programa de Engajamento e Desenvolvimento Profissional do Newton Fund no Brasil. O foco no Brasil é oferecer apoio a empreendedores criativos e desenvolver mecanismos que incentivem uma Economia Criativa mais diversificada, inclusiva e confiável."

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"Recent research shows that start-ups are important for job creation, but these firms are also inherently volatile. We use linked employer-employee data to examine the relative importance of firm age and firm size for job creation and destruction in Brazil. Firm age is a more important determinant of job creation in Brazil than firm size; young firms and star-ups create a relatively high number of jobs. However, young firms are also more likely to exit the market and have higher levels of employment volatility. We, therefore, condition the job creation analysis on job stability. Young firms and large firms create relatively more stable jobs in Brazil."

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"The review aims primarily to synthesize the evidence on the effects of vocational and business training programmes that aim to improve women's labour market outcomes. It also seeks to improve understanding of the barriers to and facilitators of vocational and business training effectiveness for women. This systematic review by Chinen and colleagues examined the effects on employment, income, sales, and profits. They find that vocational and business training, on average, leads to minor improvements in women's economic well-being. Differences in the programmes' effectiveness suggest that having a gender focus leads to larger impacts on women. The authors conclude that skill-building programmes may be effective when carefully designed with local gender norms in mind."

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